Studies describe Candida auris outbreaks in COVID-19 sufferers
Two new research spotlight the menace posed by the multidrug-resistant yeast Candida auris to hospitalized COVID-19 sufferers.
In a case report in the present day in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), investigators with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Florida Department of Health describe an outbreak of C auris in a COVID-19 specialty care unit of an acute care hospital in Florida.
After the hospital alerted Florida well being officers about 4 C auris infections within the unit in July 2020, workers performed a unit-wide point-prevalence survey from Aug 4 by means of Aug 18 to determine further sufferers colonized with the pathogen. The outcomes confirmed that, amongst 67 sufferers admitted to the unit, 35 (52%) have been optimistic, and 6 later had scientific cultures that grew C auris.
Eight of the colonized sufferers died inside 30 days of screening, but it surely’s unclear whether or not C auris contributed to these deaths.
Investigators concluded that use of a number of layers of gloves and robes by healthcare staff, and repeated doffing and donning of secondary layers, could have led to contamination of base layers, which in flip may have contributed to C auris transmission. They additionally counsel lapses in cleansing and disinfection of shared medical tools, together with lapses in adherence handy hygiene, could have performed a task.
Jan 8 MMWR case report
In the opposite examine, printed in the present day in Clinical Microbiology and Infection, researchers in Mexico describe the scientific and microbiologic traits of 12 sufferers with extreme COVID-19 and C auris co-infection at a Mexican hospital in August.
All sufferers have been underneath mechanical air flow and had peripherally inserted central strains and urinary catheters. C auris was remoted from blood in 6 sufferers, urine in 8, and from each websites in two 2. Five of the six sufferers with bloodstream infections died.
Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed that 8 of 15 isolates (12 from sufferers and three environmental isolates) have been multidrug-resistant.
The authors of the examine say use of a number of antibiotics and central venous catheters could have contributed to C auris co-infection in these sufferers, however additionally they counsel that elements particularly related to COVID-19, equivalent to extreme corticosteroid use, which may have an immunosuppressive impact, may need additionally contributed to the issue.
Jan 8 Clin Microbiol Infect study
Cats contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 present immunity, long-term lesions
Nine home cats inoculated with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, confirmed lung lesions and different long-term irritation within the respiratory tract after the virus had cleared from their system, studies an Emerging Infectious Diseases analysis letter printed yesterday. Despite these lingering results, nevertheless, six cats who have been re-infected confirmed safety in opposition to the illness.
Previous research have proved that home cats can transmit COVID-19 amongst themselves, and the researchers equally discovered that the virus effectively replicated within the higher respiratory organs (nasal passages and trachea), displaying up in organ and lung samples on days 3 and 6 post-infection however absent by day 10 (detectable ranges have been 10 plaque-forming models per gram of tissue).
No animal confirmed signs of respiratory sickness throughout all the course of, however three cats who have been euthanized postinfection day 28 confirmed persistent lung lesions that shared traits with continual peribronchiolar fibrosis (scarring) and vascular proliferation. One cat had extreme pneumonia, as effectively.
Even with these long-term results, SARS-CoV-2 an infection appeared to offer cats a minimum of some degree of safety in opposition to reinfection. When the researchers re-infected the six remaining cats about 4 weeks after the preliminary an infection, they discovered that these euthanized 3 days after reinfection did not have any detectable SARS-CoV-2 of their organs or lungs. Cats euthanized 21 days after reinfection had lung lesions corresponding to these noticed from the primary cohort of cats, however the alveolar septa suffered much less thickening.
“Because SARS-CoV-2 did not cause acute lethal respiratory disease in the cats in our study, cats are a compelling animal model for studying the long-term effects of nonfatal infections,” write the researchers. “These results suggest that virus infection by natural transmission between cats, as well as by experimental inoculation, induces protective immunity against a second SARS-CoV-2 infection.”
Jan 7 Emerg Infect Dis research letter
Black populations lack COVID-19 testing, examine finds
To have an equitable COVID-19 testing technique in seven counties round St. Louis, 30.4% of assessments must be reallocated, in response to a analysis letter printed in the present day in JAMA Open Network. The researchers outlined equitable testing as “the balance between the number of tests and the actual disease burden,” however solely 22.9% of COVID-19 assessments happened within the 23 zip codes that held 50% of the area’s hospitalizations.
Almost three quarters of those zip codes (73.9%) had a inhabitants of a minimum of 50% blacks. Even with the identical zip code, black residents had persistently decrease charges of assessments per hospitalization in contrast with their white neighbors.
The researchers collected information from Mar 14 by means of Aug 10 and used an tailored Lorenz curve to measure the variety of assessments, the illness burden, and a color-coded line that diversified relying on the racial make-up of a specific zip code. During the examine interval, 404,904 COVID-19 assessments and 4,059 hospitalizations happened within the area, which has a complete inhabitants of two,149,222.
“Equitable testing is paramount to a successful COVID-19 response and is essential for early case detection, self-isolation, and overall prevention of onward transmission,” the researchers write. “Lorenz curves provide straightforward metrics that can also be easily tracked over time to quantify these disparities.”
Jan 8 JAMA Netw Open research letter